Disinfectant and Sterilization Recommendations

IACUC Guideline 025 Info – Disinfectant and Sterlization Methods

Table 1: Hard-Surface High-Level Disinfectants
Disinfectant Examples Comments
Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide) Sodium hypochlorite: Clorox® 10% Chlorine Dioxide: Clidox-S®, Alcide® Corrosive; organic material decreases the effectiveness
Quarternary Ammonium Roccal-D®, TBQ®, NPD® Detergent properties
Phenolics Lysol® Corrosive; less affected by gross organic material than other disinfectants
Chlorhexidine Nolvasan® Not affected by the presence of organic material
Aldehydes Cidex® Toxic, exposure limits are set by OSHA; very effective
Aldehyde/phenol solutions 2% gluteraldehyde plus 7.05% phenol: Sporcidin® Toxic, exposure limits are set by OSHA; very effective
Peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid solutions Spor-Klenz® Low toxicity. Effective.

 

Table 2:  Sterilization Methods
Method Common Uses Required Time Comments
Steam Sterilization Steam autoclave is the most common method.  Used to sterilize surgical instruments and other equipment that is tolerant of moisture and heat. 30-40-minute cycle plus cooling time Requires a minimum of 30 minutes at 121˚C and 15 psi. Contact of materials with the steam is essential
Dry Heat Sterilization-Oven Used to sterilize items sensitive to moisture. 2-hour cycle plus cooling time Requires 160˚C for 2 hours.  Higher temperature and longer exposure time than steam autoclaving.
Liquid Chemical Sterilization-Peracetic acid Spor-Klenz® is an example. Useful for heat-sensitive, nonporous materials when access to sterilization equipment is limited. 5 1/2 hours of contact time (items must be submerged) Corrosive to metal instruments. Irritating to tissue. Rinse with sterile water or saline prior to use on animal tissues
Liquid Chemical Sterilization-Chlorine Clidox-S® and Alcide® are examples. Used on nonporous materials, heat-sensitive materials when access to sterilization equipment is limited. 6 hours of contact time (items must be submerged) Corrosive to metal instruments. Rinse with sterile water or saline prior to use on animal tissues.
Liquid Chemical Sterilization- Gluteraldehyde Cetylcide-G® is an example.  Used on nonporous, heat-sensitive materials when access to sterilization equipment is limited. 10 hours contact time (items must be submerged) Rinse with sterile water or saline prior use on animal tissues.
Liquid Chemical Sterilization-Chlorhexidine Nolvasan® is an example.  Used on nonporous, heat-sensitive materials when access to sterilization equipment is limited. 24 hours of contact time (items must be submerged) Rinse with sterile water or saline prior use on animal tissues.
Gas Sterilization- Ethylene Oxide (EtO) Used on medical and pharmaceutical products that cannot support conventional high temperature steam sterilization such as devices that incorporate electronic components, plastic packaging or plastic containers. May need up to 15 hours to complete a preconditioning, sterilization, and aeration phase. Safety of personnel is an important issue due to the harmful effect of EtO on humans.  Limited availability.

 

Table 3:  Skin Disinfectants
Name Examples Comments
Chlorhexidine Nolvasan®, Hibiclens® Excellent for use on skin
Iodophors Betadine®, Prepodyne®, Wescodyne® Organic material reduces activity.
Alcohols 70% ethyl alcohol, 70-99% isopropyl alcohol NOT ACCEPTABLE AS A PRIMARY DISINFECTANT. Not a high-level disinfectant, alcohols must be used in conjunction with an iodophore or chlorhexidine.

 

Table 4: Disinfection/sterilization Agents for use on Instruments Used for Multiple Surgeries
Agent Examples Required Time Comments
Dry Heat Sterilization-Glass Bead 15 seconds plus cooling time Requires beads to be heated to 200°C. Should be used to re-sterilize tips of clean instruments between multiple surgeries; must be used in conjunction with another method that sterilizes the entire instrument before the first surgery.
Gluteraldehyde plus 7.05% phenol Sporcidin® 10 minute immersion time required Requires 1 part Sporcidin® to 18 parts water; rinse with sterile water or saline before use on animal tissues
Aqueous gluteraldehyde Cidex® 10-30 minute immersion time required, varies depending on the formula, see manufacturer’s label Rinse with sterile water or saline before use on animal tissues
Chlorine dioxide Clidox-S® 5 minute immersion time required Requires 1 part Clidox® activator, 5 parts water, and 1 part Clidox® base; freshly made solution must rest 15 minutes before use; solution must be less than 14 days old
Peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid solutions Spor-Klenz® 10 minute immersion time required Corrosive to instruments; rinse with sterile water or saline before use on animal tissues.
70% Isopropyl Alcohol 2 minute immersion time required Gross debris should be removed prior to soak.